Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Effectivity of African leaf extract (Vernonia amygdalina) in wound healing: a systematic review


Background: The use of natural products, particularly those derived from plants, for nutritional and medical purposes to enhance human performance, including wound healing, has gained more attention in recent years. Prior studies showed the health benefits of African leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) as anti-parasitic, anti-malarial, anti-helminthic, antiviral, anticancer, anticoagulant, antithrombotic, analgesic, antipyretic effects, including the wound healing process. However, there are still mixed results regarding its effectiveness. This systematic review aims to elaborate on the effectiveness of African leaf extract in wound healing.

Method: A systematic review using the PRISMA diagram was conducted based on literature searching on three online databases (Google Scholar, Pubmed, and Cochrane Library). An eligibility criteria was applied to the literature search, and the Jadad scoring system was used to assess the study's methodological quality.

Result: We included ten clinical trial studies regarding the role and effectiveness of African leaves in wound healing. Studies come from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Nigeria. The animal models used were Wistar albino rats, rabbits, and mice. The intervention used was African leaf extract as a monotherapy or a combination of African leaf extract with other natural agents. The types used were burn wounds, incision or excision wounds, and diabetic wounds. The outcome measured was the wound healing process marked by re-epithelization, wound healing and closure time, and histopathological evaluation to assess collagen formation, polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, and fibroblast recruitment. Most of the included studies showed positive results of African leaf extract or combination with other agents in wound healing.

Conclusion: African leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) showed effectiveness in the wound healing process in terms of facilitating re-epithelization, fastened wound healing time, and significant wound reduction size compared with the control group.


  1. Kolarsick PA, Kolarsick MA, Goodwin C. Anatomy and physiology of the skin. Journal of the Dermatology Nurses' Association. 2011;3(4). p203-213.
  2. Schultz G, Chin GA, Moldawer L, and Diegelmann R. Principles of wound healing. Mechanisms of Vascular Disease. Chapter 23: A Reference Book for Vascular Specialists. 2011. p423-450.
  3. Putrianirma R, Triakoso N, Yunita MN, Yudaniayanti IS, Hamid IS, Fikri F. Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Afrika (Vernonia amygdalina) Secara Topikal Untuk Reepitelisasi Penyembuhan Luka Insisi Pada Tikus Putih (Rattus novergicus). J Med Vet. 2019;2(1):30-5.
  4. Rachmanita RT, Primarizky H, Setiawan B, Agustono B, Saputro AL. Efektivitas ekstrak daun Afrika (Vernonia amygdalina) secara topikal terhadap kepadatan kolagen dalam penyembuhan luka insisi pada tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus). Jurnal Medik Veteriner. 2019;2(1):36-41.
  5. Demeke H, Hasen G, Sosengo T, Siraj J, Tatiparthi R, Suleman S. Evaluation of Policy Governing Herbal Medicines Regulation and Its Implementation in Ethiopia. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2022;15:1383-1394.
  6. Ijeh II, Ejike CECC. Current perspectives on the medicinal potentials of Vernonia amygdalina Del. Journal of medicinal plants research. 2011;5(7). p1051-1061.
  7. Alara OR, Abdurahman NH, Mudalip SKA, Olalere OA. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Vernonia amygdalina: a review. Jour of Chem Eng and Ind Biotech. 2017;2(1). p80-96.
  8. Ibekwe HA, Eteng MU, Antigha E. Proximate and phytochemical composition of Garcinia kola and Vernonia amygdalina. Global Journal of agricultural Sciences. 2007;6(2). p207-209.
  9. Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds DJM, Gavaghan DJ, et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Controlled clinical trials. 1996;17(1). p1-12.
  10. Builders MI and Builders PF. Effect of the polyherbal cream of Andrographis paniculate and Vernonia amygdalina in Truama wound. World J Pharm Sci. 2018; 6(3). p98-109.
  11. Ginting SS. Perbandingan Efek Penyembuhan Luka Bakar antara Gel Ekstrak Etanol Daun Afrika (Gymnanthemum Amygdalinum Del.) dengan Gel Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) serta Kombinasinya pada Kelinci Tahun 2019. JPFH. 2020;3(1). p82-90.
  12. Harahap NI. Efek Penyembuhan Luka Bakar Gel Kombinasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Afrika (Vernonia amygdalina) dan Ekstrak etanol daun Bangun–Bangun (Coleusamboinicus Lour). Jurnal Penelitian Farmasi & Herbal. 2020;3(1). p57-61.
  13. Lahagina JC, Yamlean PV, dan Supriati HS. Pengaruh Pembuatan Salep Ekstrak Daun Afrika (Vernonia Amygdalina) dengan Basis Hidrokarbon dan Absorbsi Terhadap Penyembuhan Luka Bakar pada Kelinci (Oryctolagus Cuniculus). PHARMACON. 2019;8(1). p134-141.
  14. Mustikasari SY, Wirandoko IH, dan Komala I. Efektifitas Ekstrak Daun Afrika (Vernonia amygdalina) Terhadap Ketebalan Epitelisasi pada Luka Insisi Mencit. Tunas Medika Jurnal Kedokteran & Kesehatan. 2020;6(1). p12-18.
  15. Nafiu AB, Akinwale OC, & Owoleye BV. Histomorphological Evaluation of Wound Healing-Comparison between Use of Honey and Vernonia Amygdalina Leaf Juice. Nigeria. Trop. J. Health Sci. 2016;23(3). p10-19.
  16. Ruslim AK, Anitasari S, Ismail S, Oli EM, and Yani S. Effect of African leaves extract (Vernonia amygdalina Del.) on wound healing velocity after tooth extraction in Rattus norvegicus. JSK. 2017;1(8). p408-414.
  17. Soji-Omoniwa O, Adebayo SO, Ayinde RO, Oyeniyi AF, Adeleye DA, Ezechukwu TA, et al. Consumption of Cod Liver Oil-enriched Vernonia amygdalina Leaf-based Diet Promoted Wound Healing in Wound-inflicted Type 2 Diabetic Wistar Rats. AlQalam Jour of Med and App Sci. 2022;5(1). p295-309.
  18. Amarachukwu EL and Ogheneochuko P. Screening of wound healing effect of Elaeis guineensis Oil, extract of Vernonia amygdalina mixed with dried egg albumin on burn wound inflicted guinea pig. World Journal of Biology Pharmacy and Health Sciences. 2021;8(1). p13-28.
  19. Romana-Souza B, Santos JS, Bandeira LG, Monte-Alto-Costa A. Selective inhibition of COX-2 improves cutaneous wound healing of pressure ulcers in mice through reduction of iNOS expression. Life Sci. 2016;153:82-92.
  20. Serra MB, Barroso WA, da Silva NN, et al. From Inflammation to Current and Alternative Therapies Involved in Wound Healing. Int J Inflam. 2017;2017:3406215.
  21. Wilgus TA, Bergdall VK, Tober KL, et al. The impact of cyclooxygenase-2 mediated inflammation on scarless fetal wound healing. Am J Pathol. 2004;165(3):753-761.

How to Cite

Adiputra, Y. (2024). Effectivity of African leaf extract (Vernonia amygdalina) in wound healing: a systematic review. Intisari Sains Medis, 15(1), 189–196.




Search Panel

Yohanes Adiputra
Google Scholar
ISM Journal