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Lymphadenitis and meningoencephalitis resulting from Cryptococcus neoformans infection in HIV patients

  • Stephanie Sugiharto ,
  • I Made Susila Utama ,
  • Luh Putu Iin Indrayani Maker ,

Abstract

Background: Lymphadenopathy can occur at any stage of HIV infection, with multiple aetiologies including reactive, infectious and malignant. An accurate and timely diagnosis has obvious implications for treatment.

Case Description: We report cryptococcal lymphadenitis as the presenting manifestation of HIV infection. Clinical symptoms observed in the patient included headaches, fever, non-productive cough, nausea, vomiting, white patches on the tongue, nodules in the right and left jaw area, a weight loss of 10 kilograms within a month, and a decrease in consciousness in the middle of treatment. The diagnosis was eventually confirmed with a lymph node fine needle aspiration biopsy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) indicated chronic granulomatous inflammation with a fungal (yeast) infection, suggestive of Cryptococcus.

Conclusion: Cryptococcosis is a major invasive fungal infection capable of causing widespread disease outbreaks in immunocompromised hosts, and even in seemingly immunocompetent individuals. Cryptococcal infection should be a diagnostic consideration for lymphadenopathy in every patient, regardless of known HIV infection.

References

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How to Cite

Sugiharto, S., Utama, I. M. S., & Maker, L. P. I. I. (2024). Lymphadenitis and meningoencephalitis resulting from Cryptococcus neoformans infection in HIV patients. Intisari Sains Medis, 15(1), 49–54. https://doi.org/10.15562/ism.v15i1.1938

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Stephanie Sugiharto
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I Made Susila Utama
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Luh Putu Iin Indrayani Maker
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