Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

The effectiveness of pinhole glasses for minimizing the impact of computer vision syndrome


Background: Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is a visual impairment due to using digital devices, such as computer monitors, gadgets, tablets, and others, for a long intensity. Research has shown that precision spectral filters effectively reduce CVS symptoms by blocking blue light. Some studies also state that this lens cannot improve accommodative accuracy or reduce visual stress due to reduced light entering. Pinhole glasses can be a promising intervention in minimizing the impact of CVS, especially in increasing eye acuity and eye accommodative amplitude.

Methods: We searched for articles in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and other related journal databases using specific keywords and Boolean logic. We screened all articles using inclusion criteria. The data obtained was then structured based on the problems discussed.

Result: A study showed that visual acuity in Multiple-Pinhole (MPH) glasses and visual acuity in Single-Pinhole (SPH) glasses increased significantly compared to baseline. All participants had the same or better visual acuity when wearing one type of pinhole glasses than when not using them. In addition, participants' depth of focus and accommodative amplitude showed an increase when using MPH and SPH glasses compared to baseline. All participants experienced increased accommodation when wearing both types of pinhole glasses.

Conclusion: Based on SPH and MPH, pinhole glasses have the potential to minimize the impact of CVS.


  1. Ericsson. Number of smartphone subscriptions worldwide from 2016 to 2026. 2021. Available from:
  2. Rasyid M, Irawaty E, Novendy, Lontoh SO. Peningkatan Wawasan terhadap Computer Vision Sindrome bagi Pengguna Komputer Guna Menghindari Terjadinya Gangguan Penglihatan. J Bakti Masy Indones [Internet]. 2021;4(2):314–319.
  3. Ranasinghe P, Wathurapatha WS, Perera YS, Lamabadusuriya DA, Kulatunga S, Jayawardana N, et al. Computer vision syndrome among computer office workers in a developing country: an evaluation of prevalence and risk factors. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9(1):150.
  4. Dotulong D, Rares LM, Najoan IHM. Computer Vision Syndrome. e-CliniC. 2021;9(1 SE-Articles):20-25.
  5. AOA. Computer Vision Syndrome. American Optometric Association. 2017.
  6. Amalia H. Computer vision syndrome. J Biomedika dan Kesehat [Internet]. 2018;1(2 SE-Editorial):117–118.
  7. Yammouni R, Evans BJW. Is reading rate in digital eyestrain influenced by binocular and accommodative anomalies? J Optom. 2021;14(3):229–239.
  8. Caltrider D, Gupta A, Tripathy K. Evaluation of Visual Acuity. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023.
  9. Coles-Brennan C, Sulley A, Young G. Management of digital eye strain. Clin Exp Optom. 2019;102(1):18–29.
  10. Evans B. Pickwell’s Binocular Vision Anomalies, 6th Edition. 2021.
  11. Kim WS, Park IK, Park YK, Chun YS. Comparison of Objective and Subjective Changes Induced by Multiple-Pinhole Glasses and Single-Pinhole Glasses. J Korean Med Sci. 2017;32(5):850–857.
  12. Kim WS, Park IK, Chun YS. Quantitative analysis of functional changes caused by pinhole glasses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55(10):6679–6685.
  13. Gowrisankaran S, Sheedy JE. Computer vision syndrome: A review. Work. 2015;52(2):303–314.
  14. Chawla A, Lim TC, Shikhare SN, Munk PL, Peh WCG. Computer Vision Syndrome: Darkness Under the Shadow of Light. Can Assoc Radiol J = J l’Association Can des Radiol. 2019;70(1):5–9.
  15. Coronel-Ocampos J, Gómez J, Gómez A, Quiroga-Castañeda PP, Valladares-Garrido MJ. Computer Visual Syndrome in Medical Students From a Private University in Paraguay: A Survey Study. Front public Heal. 2022;10(1):935405.
  16. Tauste Francés A, Ronda-Pérez E, Seguí Crespo M del M. [Ocular and visual alterations in computer workers contact lens wearers: scoping review]. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2014;88(2):203–215.
  17. Mehra D, Galor A. Digital Screen Use and Dry Eye: A Review. Asia-Pacific J Ophthalmol (Philadelphia, Pa). 2020;9(6):491–497.
  18. Bali J, Neeraj N, Bali R. Computer vision syndrome: A review. J Clin Ophthalmol Res. 2014;2(1):61-68.
  19. McMonnies CW. The clinical and experimental significance of blinking behavior. J Optom. 2020;13(2):74–80.
  20. Lawrenson JG, Hull CC, Downie LE. The effect of blue-light blocking spectacle lenses on visual performance, macular health and the sleep-wake cycle: a systematic review of the literature. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt J Br Coll Ophthalmic Opt. 2017;37(6):644–654.
  21. Ide T, Toda I, Miki E, Tsubota K. Effect of Blue Light-Reducing Eye Glasses on Critical Flicker Frequency. Asia-Pacific J Ophthalmol (Philadelphia, Pa). 2015;4(2):80–85.
  22. Cheng HM, Chen ST, Liu HJ, Cheng CY. Does blue light filter improve computer vision syndrome in patients with dry eye? Life Sci J. 2014;11:612–615.
  23. Rahmani S, Nazari M, Baghban AA, Ghassemi-Broumand M. How Much of Hazardous Blue Light is Transmitted By Spectacle Lenses? Vol. 15, Journal of ophthalmic & vision research. United Arab Emirates. 2020;15(3):435–437.
  24. Park HH, Park IK, Moon NJ, Chun YS. Clinical feasibility of pinhole glasses in presbyopia. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2019;29(2):133–140.
  25. Gede L, Dewi A, Handayani AT, Bagus I, Manuaba P. Karakteristik amplitudo akomodasi mata pada anak sekolah dasar dengan kelainan refraksi di Kabupaten Badung , Bali , Indonesia. 2020;11(3):1381–1386.
  26. Maru A. Pathophysiologic Mechanisms of Computer Vision Syndrome and its Prevention: Review. World J Ophthalmol Vis Res. 2019;2(5):1-7.
  27. Turgut B. Ocular Ergonomics for the Computer Vision Syndrome. Kournal Eye and Vision. 2018;1(2):1-9.
  28. Manuaba IBAP, Santika NGAPL, Prabawa IPY, Bhargah A, Darmayani S, Wu CC. Simulation-based learning compared with conventional methods in procedural skill. Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science. 2020;14(2):86-90.

How to Cite

Suputra, P. W. A., Widarani, P. D. A. P., Darmadi, I. G. A. M. D., Arini, A. A. I. K., & Pramesemara, I. G. N. (2024). The effectiveness of pinhole glasses for minimizing the impact of computer vision syndrome. Intisari Sains Medis, 15(1), 489–498.




Search Panel

Putu Wira Abdi Suputra
Google Scholar
ISM Journal

Putu Dian Amelya Putri Widarani
Google Scholar
ISM Journal

I Gusti Ayu Maha Deivy Darmadi
Google Scholar
ISM Journal

Anak Agung Istri Kosalya Arini
Google Scholar
ISM Journal

I Gusti Ngurah Pramesemara
Google Scholar
ISM Journal